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Neurohacking - Tutorials
Written by NHA   
Sunday, 05 February 2012 12:46
Article Index
Neurohacking Tutorial 8 - Imagination, Memory and Prediction
Neuroanatomy of Memory - Structure and Function
Everywhere and Nowhere
How Memories are Made
What Happens if Things Go Wrong?
Core Skills for Memory Health and Improvement
Imagination and Prediction
NHA Guide to Methods & Technology
The Most Important Bits To Remember
Hacks & Exercices
Notes, References & Answers
All Pages


Footnotes, Refs (Answers at end)

1. (used to be known as ‘implicit’ or 'nondeclarative' memory, so called because much of it is unconscious. 'Explicit' or 'declarative' memory meant conscious.)

2. http://www.neurology.org/content/57/11/2054.short

3. S. Murray Sherman and R. W. Guillery http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?tid=10680&ttype=2

4. http://www.livescience.com/980-brain-boots-computer.html

5. You will not find the mainstream agreeing with us here. Don't worry; just remember it doesn't matter what we call things as long as we define them carefully. Then other reaesrchers can come along later and call them 'Foo Bong' or 'Diddly Dong' or whatever they want to.

6. Packard, M G; and Knowlton, B J; “Learning and memory functions of the Basal Ganglia”


7. Laure Rondi-Reig & team, Cerebellum Shapes Hippocampal Spatial Code, Science 21 October 2011: Vol. 334 no. 6054 pp. 385-389. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-10-cerebellar-neurons-dark.html

8. See NHA Library/Theory & Research/ “An Update on Memory Editing 2004-2011”

9. E. E. Smith and S. M. Kosslyn (2007). Cognitive Psychology: Mind and Brain (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131825089 p. 214).

10. Saywell N, Taylor D (2008) The role of the cerebellum in procedural learning – are there implications for physiotherapists’ clinical practice?. Physiother Theory practice. 2008- Oct; 24 (5); 321 - 8

11. Kolb, B; Whishaw I (2008). Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, 6th ed. New York: Worth Publishers. ISBN 0716795868.

12. Goodale MA, Milner AD (1992). "Separate visual pathways for perception and action". Trends Neurosci. 15 (1): 20–5.

13. Fix, James D. (2008). "Basal Ganglia and the Striatal Motor System". Neuroanatomy (Board Review Series) (4th ed.). Baltimore: Wulters Kluwer & Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins. pp. 274–281. ISBN 0-7817-7245-1.

14. Alain, Claude; Woods, David L.; Knight, Robert T. (1998). "A distributed cortical network for auditory sensory memory in humans". Brain Research 812 (1–2): 23–37.

15. Ward, J (2009). The Student's Guide to Cognitive Neuroscience. Psychology Press. ISBN 1848720033.

16. McGaugh, JL (2004). "The Amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences". Annual Review of Neuroscience 27: 1–28.

17. Cowan, Nelson. (2005). Working Memory Capacity. Psychology Press. New York.

18. Todd, J, & Marois, R. (2004). Capacity limit of visual short term memory in human posterior parietal cortex. Retrieved from http://www.ioi.knaw.nl/viscog/temp/Todd%20(2004)%20Nature.pdf

19. Alexander GE, Crutcher MD. Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits; neural substrates of parallel processing. Trends Neurosci. 1990; 13; 266-271

20. Parent A. Extrinsic connections of the basal ganglia. Trends in Neurosci. 1990; 13; 254-258

21. http://www.psych-it.com.au/Psychlopedia/article.asp?id=313

22. Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., & Jessell, T. (1991). Principles of Neural Science. 3rd edition. New York: NY. Elsevier.

23. http://memorylab.stanford.edu/Publications/papers/KAHN_JNP05.pdf

ALSODevlinetal.2003; Floel et al.2004; Kohler et al.2004

24. Johnson, M.K., Hashtroudi, S., & Lindsay, S.(1993). Source Monitoring.Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3-28.

25. Winograd, E. (1988). Some observations on prospective remembering. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical Aspects of Memory: Current Research and Issues. Vol. 2, pp. 348-353.

26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1692423/

27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1692423/pdf/9854254.pdf

28. I know of two such cases whose early memories I can personally confirm; having been there when they happened. Both adults can remember clearly details of events from their first year of life.

29. Salzman, C. Daniel and Fusi, Stefano; Emotion, Cognition, and Mental State Representation in Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex, Annual Review of Neuroscience Vol. 33: 173-202, 2010.)

30. Professor Zafar Bashir, Dr Clea Warburton and Dr Douglas Caruana, "Study provides potential explanation for mechanisms of associative memory." December 13th, 2011. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-12-potential-explanation-mechanisms-associative-memory.html

31. Mark G. Stokes, working with Kathryn Atherton, Eva Zita Patai, and Anna Christina Nobre, Long-term memory prepares neural activity for perception, PNAS, November 22, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1108555108

32. Sara 2000; Nadel et al. 2000b; Alberini 2005; Dudai 2006.

33. Mohs, Richard C. "How Human Memory Works." 08 May 2007.

34. Toshiyuki Nakagaki; "Japan scientists hope slime holds intelligence key." December 28th, 2011. http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-12-japan-scientists-slime-intelligence-key.html

slime mold fun:



35. Beau Lotto, http://www.lottolab.org/articles/publiccolour.asp

36. Provencio I, Rodrigues IR, Jiang G, Hayes WP, Moreira EF, Rollag MD (January 2000). "A Novel Human Opsin in the Inner Retina". J. Neurosci. 20 (2): 600–5.

37. Bruce McNaughton, David Euston "Research shows the brain's processing speed is significantly faster than real time". [2008]; http://www.physorg.com/news114358469.html

38. Ji, D. & Wilson, M. A. "Coordinated memory replay in the visual cortex and hippocampus during sleep". Nature Neurosci. 10, 100–107 (2007)


39. Steriade M, Timofeev I, Grenier F (2001) Natural waking and sleep states: a view from inside neocortical neurons. J Neurophysiol 85: 1969–1985.

40. Cantero JL, Atienza M, Stickgold R, Kahana MJ, Madsen JR, et al. (2003) Sleep-dependent theta oscillations in the human hippocampus and neocortex. J Neurosci 23: 10897–10903.

41. Kisley, M. A.; Cornwell, Z. M. (2006). "Gamma and beta neural activity evoked during a sensory gating paradigm: Effects of auditory, somatosensory and cross-modal stimulation". Clinical Neurophysiology 117 (11): 2549–2563.

ALSO Kanayama, N.; Sato, A.; Ohira, H. (2007). "Crossmodal effect with rubber hand illusion and gamma-band activity". Psychophysiology 44 (3): 392–402

42. O'Nuallain, Sean. "Zero Power and Selflessness: What Meditation and Conscious Perception Have in Common". Retrieved 2009-05-30. Journal: Cognitive Sciences 4(2).

ALSO Kaufman, Marc (January 3, 2005). "Meditation Gives Brain a Charge, Study Finds".

43. Nadasdy Z, Hirase H, Czurko A, Csicsvari J, Buzsaki G (1999) "Replay and time compression of recurring spike sequences in the hippocampus". J Neurosci 19: 9497–9507.

ALSO Lee AK, Wilson MA (2002) "Memory of sequential experience in the hippocampus during slow wave sleep". Neuron 36: 1183–1194.

ALSO Louie K, Wilson MA (2001) "Temporally structured replay of awake hippocampal ensemble activity during rapid eye movement sleep". Neuron 29: 145–156.

44. Peigneux P, Laureys S, Fuchs S, Collette F, Perrin F, et al. (2004) Are spatial memories strengthened in the human hippocampus during slow wave sleep? Neuron 44: 535–545.

Fabio Moroni, Lino Nobili, Giuseppe Curcio, Fabrizio De Carli, Fabiana Fratello, Cristina Marzano, Luigi De Gennaro, Franco Ferrillo, Massimo Cossu, Stefano Francione, Giorgio Lo Russo, Mario Bertini, Michele Ferrara; "Sleep in the Human Hippocampus: A Stereo-EEG Study

45. Laura Lee Colgin, Tobias Denninger, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting, Tora Bonnevie, Ole Jensen, May-Britt Moser & Edvard I. Moser; "frequency of gamma oscillations routes the flow of information in the hippocampus".

46. Ueli Rutishauser, Ian B. Ross, Adam N. Mamelak & Erin M. Schuman; "Human memory strength is predicted by theta-frequency phase-locking of single neurons".


47. Brainwave frequency 'norms' differ slightly between individuals. "Alpha" can be anything from 7-13 Hz; we are using average examples here.

48. Wolansky T, Clement EA, Peters S, Palczak MA, Dickson CT (2006) "Hippocampal Slow Oscillation: A novel EEG state and Its coordination with ongoing neocortical Activity." J Neurosci 26: 6213–6229.

49. Buzsáki G, Leung LW, Vanderwolf CH (1983) Cellular bases of hippocampal EEG in the behaving rat. Brain Res 287: 139–71.

ALSO Suzuki SS, Smith GK (1985) "Single-cell activity and synchronous bursting in the rat hippocampus during waking behavior and sleep". Exp Neurol 89: 71–89.

ALSO Buzsáki G (1986) "Hippocampal sharp waves: their origin and significance". Brain Res 398: 242–52.

50. Wilson MA, McNaughton BL (1994) Reactivation of hippocampal ensemble memories during sleep. Science 265: 676–9.

ALSO Qin YL, McNaughton BL, Skaggs WE, Barnes CA (1997) "Memory reprocessing in corticocortical and hippocampocortical neuronal ensembles". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 352: 1525–33.

ALSO Skaggs WE, McNaughton BL (1998) "Spatial firing properties of hippocampal CA1 populations in an environment containing two visually identical regions". J Neurosci 18: 8455–66.

ALSO Kudrimoti HS, Barnes CA, McNaughton BL (1999) "Reactivation of hippocampal cell assemblies: effects of behavioral state, experience, and EEG dynamics". J Neurosci 19: 4090–101.

ALSO Louie K, Wilson MA (2001) "Temporally structured replay of awake hippocampal ensemble activity during rapid eye movement sleep". Neuron 29(1): 145–56.

ALSO Lee AK, Wilson MA (2002) "Memory of sequential experience in the hippocampus during slow wave sleep". Neuron 36(6): 1183–94.

51. O'Neil J, Senior A, Allen K, Huxter J, Csicsvari J (2008) Reactivation of experience-dependent cell assembly patterns in the hippocampus. Nature Neuroscience 11: 209–216.

ALSO King C, Henze DA, Leinekugel X, Buzsáki G (1999) Hebbian modification of a hippocampal population pattern in the rat. J Physiol 521 Pt 1: 159–67.

ALSO Wiâm Ramadan, Oxana Eschenko, Susan J. Sara; "Hippocampal Sharp Wave/Ripples during Sleep for Consolidation of Associative Memory"

52. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience. The publication and related materials can be found at http://www.physics … edu/~mayank/

53. Datta, S. (2000). "Avoidance task training potentiates phasic pontine-wave density in the rat: A mechanism for sleep-dependent plasticity". The Journal of Neuroscience 20 (22): 8607–8613.

54. Bong-Kiun Kaang and Jun-Hyeok Choi; Protein Degradation during Reconsolidation as a Mechanism for Memory Reorganization. Behav Neurosci. 2011; 5: 2. Published online 2011 February 1.

55. "Brain's connective cells are much more than glue; they also regulate learning and memory." December 29th, 2011. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-12-brain-cells-memory.html

56. Joseph LeDoux and VS Ramachandran particularly recommended.

57. Johnson, M.K., Hashtroudi, S., Lindsay, D.S. (1993). Source Monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114(1), 3–28

58. As opposed to long term memory problems, where things go in one year and out the other.

59. http://www.biocarta.com/pathfiles/h_achpathway.asp

60. [2008] by neurobiologist Michael Ehlers

Neuron, Volume 69, Issue 5, 856-875, 10 March 2011


61. Yannick Marchalant, Holly M Brothers, Gary L Wenk; Inflammation and aging: can endocannabinoids help? Biomedicine pharmacotherapy Biomedecine pharmacotherapie (2008)

Volume: 62, Issue: 4, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 212-217

62. Taube, JS (2007). "The head direction signal: Origins and sensory-motor integration.". Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 30: 181–207.

ALSO Sharp et al. (2001): “The anatomical and computational basis of rat HD signal”.

63. Provided by University of California - San Diego

"Hippocampus plays bigger memory role than previously thought." November 1st, 2011. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-11-hippocampus-bigger-memory-role-previously.html

64. Louis Nahum, Stéphane R. Simon, David Sander, François Lazeyras, and Armin Schnider, "Neural response to the behaviorally relevant absence of anticipated outcomes and the presentation of potentially harmful stimuli: A human fMRI study", appears in Cortex, Volume 47, Issue 2 (February 2010)

ALSO "Revealing the wiring that allows us to adapt to the unexpected." January 31st, 2011. http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-01-revealing-wiring-unexpected.html

65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067609

66. [refs] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21593570

67. Nature Neuroscience 2008

68. Jennifer S. Mueller, Shimul Melwani, Jack A. Goncalo; 1-1-2011; "The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But Reject Creative Ideas". The idea behind this paper was inspired by Barry Staw’s chapter, “Why No One Really Wants Creativity.”

69. Jaeggi and Buschkuehl, 2008

70. UT Southwestern Medical Center 2009

71. Keith Petrie and John Weinman; "Mind over matter: Patients' perceptions of illness make a difference." January 25th, 2012. Provided by Association for Psychological Science http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-01-mind-patients-perceptions-illness-difference.html

72. James V. Haxby, J. Swaroop Guntupalli, Andrew C. Connolly, Yaroslav O. Halchenko, Bryan R. Conroy, M. Ida Gobbini, Michael Hanke and Peter J. Ramadge; "A Common, High-Dimensional Model of the Representational Space in Human Ventral Temporal Cortex"Neuron, 404-416, October 20, 2011.

73. Dr. Junghyup Suh et al; Entorhinal Cortex Layer III Input to the Hippocampus Is Crucial for Temporal Association Memory, Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1210125

"Brain circuits connected with memory discovered." November 7th, 2011. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-11-brain-circuits-memory.html

74. "Scientists map the frontiers of vision." January 6th, 2012 in Neuroscience. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-01-scientists-frontiers-vision.html

75. Stefanie Liebe, Gregor M Hoerzer, Nikos K Logothetis & Gregor Rainer (2012) Theta coupling between V4 and prefrontal cortex predicts visual short-term memory performance. Nature Neuroscience, 29 January 2012.

"Short-term memory is based on synchronized brain oscillations." January 31st, 2012. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-01-short-term-memory-based-synchronized-brain.html

76. Ben Storm et al, UCLA 2007

Ken Paller and Joel L. Voss, 2009; "An Electrophysiological Signature of Unconscious Recognition Memory" Feb. 8 2009 Nature Neuroscience.

77. Keith Kluender, Christian Stilp and Timothy Rogers; "Banking on predictability, the mind increases efficiency." November 22nd, 2010. http://www.physorg.com/news/2010-11-banking-mind-efficiency.html

78. Nada Porter et al, Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2011; http://www.mc.uky.edu/pharmacology/bios/porter.html

79. David Freedman and Sruthi Swaminathan; "Neural balls and strikes: Where categories live in the brain." January 15th, 2012. Nature Neuroscience Jan. 15


80. Marco Iacoboni (University of California, Los Angeles) 2010; a meta-analysis of 139 imaging studies on mirroring activity.

81. Timothy P. Novikoff , Jon M. Kleinberg and Steven H. Strogatz (author of 'Sync'); "Education of a model student" Center for Applied Mathematics, and bDepartment of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853


82. "A better way to remember." June 17th, 2011. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-06-a-better-way-to-remember.html

83. Kalif Vaughn & Katherine A. Rawson; "Testing improves memory." June 15th, 2011. Provided by Association for Psychological Science; http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-06-memory.html

84. Rampon C, Jiang CH, Dong H, et al. (November 2000). "Effects of environmental enrichment on gene expression in the brain". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (23): 12880–4.

85. Landi S, Sale A, Berardi N, Viegi A, Maffei L, Cenni MC (January 2007). "Retinal functional development is sensitive to environmental enrichment: a role for BDNF". FASEB J. 21 (1): 130–9.

ALSO Rasmuson S, Olsson T, Henriksson BG, et al. (January 1998). "Environmental enrichment selectively increases 5-HT1A receptor mRNA expression and binding in the rat hippocampus". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 53 (1–2): 285–90.

ALSO Escorihuela RM, Fernández-Teruel A, Tobeña A, et al. (July 1995). "Early environmental stimulation produces long-lasting changes on beta-adrenoceptor transduction system". Neurobiol Learn Mem 64 (1): 49–57.

ALSO Nithianantharajah J, Levis H, Murphy M (May 2004). "Environmental enrichment results in cortical and subcortical changes in levels of synaptophysin and PSD-95 proteins". Neurobiol Learn Mem 81 (3): 200–10.

86. Kaler SR, Freeman BJ (May 1994). "Analysis of environmental deprivation: cognitive and social development in Romanian orphans". J Child Psychol Psychiatry 35 (4): 769–81.

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Answers to 'random congruous association'

Individual associations may vary, core concepts should not.



A computer =Time

overall associations:


Matter –a computer is a physical object

Space –is something you may have at home or in your surroundings

Density –how much memory has it got? How many computers do we need?

Time –performs procedures dependant on timing, is a machine, is a tool to be creative with, demands accuracy in programming and rectitude in use

Energy –can both inspire you and tire you

Power –gives access to great amounts of information, can help self development, does cause a large electricity use.


  • A cave = Matter

overall associations:

Matter –is a physical object, can be a shelter or home, is solid, a place where creatures give birth, can hibernate or sleep, it’s dark and private and safe

Space –you can go inside, you can explore, you can make it a personal space

Density –is the air fresh? How damp is it? Is it inhabited? How many such caves are there?

Time –useful in wintertime or hot weather. Creative possibilities [cave art]

Energy –a place to regain energy, a place easy to keep warm, somewhere to store resources

Power –good place to develop spiritual abilities, not a good place to get satellite TV


  • A Bavarian cyclist’s jockstrap = Matter

overall associations:

Matter –is a physical object, is protection for physical body

Space –a cyclist is likely to go exploring and need maps, navigation etc. Where did I leave my jockstrap?

Density –how strong is the jockstrap? Does it fit? How many jockstraps are needed here?

Time –jockstrap is a basic tool. how long will the jockstrap last? Does wearing it improve the cyclist’s time? When did I last wash it?

Energy –cycling improves physical energy and can inspire you, jockstrap may assist this.

Power –may reduce distractions to clear-headedness


Your associations are unlikely to be exactly the same as ours, so now you can look at these things from two points of view.


Answer to “test spatial imagination”: The top, right-hand shape is not the same.






Last Updated on Monday, 29 May 2017 13:32