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Neurohacking - Methods & Technology
Escrito por NHA   
Domingo 28 de Febrero de 2010 03:49
Índice de Artículos
Methods & Technology Intro - Part II: Technology
Diagnosis & Investigation
Damage Repair & Prevention
Augmentation & Exploration
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Augmentation & Exploration


Is used for improvement of overall health & function, mind games & play, altered states and enhancement of particular areas.


Bio- and neurofeedback

Can also be used for improvement and exploration.

Bio-/neurofeedback is a tool, basically, that should be part of every serious neurohacker’s toolkit. It’s great for solving problems and maintaining health but it’s also about helping people reach the further limits of their potential to know themselves and develop self mastery and self control of their minds, brains, bodies, thoughts, emotions and the ways these all interact.

Biofeedback as it is used or practised is a blend of psychology and technology, of teaching and coaching, learning and or stretching to reach new levels of personal potential. There are differences in the ways biofeedback is conceptualized by different people. At one end of the spectrum it is defined by some health care providers as a straightforward ‘medical treatment’, just like an injection or respiratory therapy. Applications at this end of the spectrum include neuromuscular rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries, stroke victims, headache relief, blood pressure reduction & amelioration of hypertension, diminution of diabetic intermittent claudication... and many more. It's also used in sports and fitness training.

At the other end of the biofeedback concept spectrum, it is considered a transformational process used to enable people to reach their full potential and peak performance, not only emotionally, mentally and physically; reaching new levels of concentration, focus, creativity, patience, equanimity and inner peace, achieving new athletic performance milestones, improving intellect and memory, but also spiritually and with altered states; enabling enhanced empathic ability, out of body experiences, multiple orgasms, connections with the unconscious mind and deep emotional and spiritual experiences of synergy, unity and synchrony.


Mind Machines

The classic ‘mind machines’ either stimulate at set brainwave frequencies, or have programs which start at one frequency and move up or down, with the goal of moving the user in the direction of the program. Higher priced or home-built units can have more pre-set programs and are more user-programmable. Many units are computer interfaceable. Some will work simultaneously with audio tape or CD players.

 Some biofeedback providers combine biofeedback with neurofeedback and/or other techniques to boost the effects.


Here is a selection:


CES for personality transformation

Used in drug addiction rehabilitation clinics as an addiction-fighting tool, CES has proven to have a dramatic effect on personality. Patients psychologically tested before CES use and after have yielded interesting results. Levels of autonomy, self esteem and confidence doubled after CES technology was utilized. In some cases improvements almost tripled.



An EEG is a useful monitoring tool in neurofeedback. An individual can be trained to reach a theta wave state by being made aware of when they're actually "there. [The EEG unit may create a tone or ring when it detects a theta like wave pattern developing.] In this way the EEG gives us feedback and allows us to monitor our performance; ultimately helping us reach mind states that are optimal. 


Light and Sound Machines

Most light/sound mind machines send specific sound frequencies into your ear via head phones and flicker light patterns into your eyes via glasses with LED's or some kind of light emitting device built into the frame. Some can be programmed to act as pure biofeedback devices, for example sending you a higher tone as your blood pressure increases, training you to reduce the tone and consequently the pressure. By attending to changes in the light and sound feedback in response to changes in your brainwave patterns, you can learn a similar technique for deliberately controlling your own brainwaves [and consequently your state of mind, neurochemical balance, mood, and all the rest.] Alternatively, in many machines you can program in a certain frequency and train your brain to copy it and ‘go there’. These two simple methods bring the fastest results for intelligence augmentation, without any further messing about.

Surprisingly, this is not what most people use light & sound machines for. Many prefer the ‘preset programs’ that come with many machines. These are akin to ‘trips’ that take you through a series of frequency changes and use various methods for what is called ‘brain entrainment’.

Light and Sound Machines utilize research conducted by numerous individuals over the past 50 yrs. In the mid 1930's, scientists began experimenting with flickering light in a subjects eye. They found that when they strobed light at 10 Hz in an individuals eye they discovered from EEG readings that the brain became entrained or fell into a 10 Hz frequency [alpha] state. A premise assumed is that some kind of a ‘trance’ is achieved that facilitates faster learning, and some units present ‘entrainment programs’ designed for learning various skills, such as assertiveness or confidence.

There is almost certainly some benefit from this, although it is doubtful if improvement is faster than via pure neurofeedback. One difficulty is the possibility of trying to develop brain networks in the wrong order, which would render benefits temporary at best; although this problem impacts all areas of NH it is particularly relevant here.


Binaural Beats

One theory used within light & sound technology in effect created by binaural beats. When your left ear receives a signal of 200 Hz. and your right ear hears a signal of 210 Hz, in an attempt to make sense of the conflicting sounds the two hemispheres of your brain registers an extra third signal called a ‘binaural beat’. This binaural beat is registered as the difference of both frequencies [in this case 10 Hz.] It is believed that the brain becomes "entrained" to resonate to the binaural beat. Once entrained, it theoretically sends a signal to the cerebral cortex thereby mixing with existing patterns of neural activity ultimately producing altering & mind expanding state changes.

An alternative theory is that it works exactly like its electrical counterpart in the special effects used in musical production –You input two different frequencies and the circuit produces either both of them plus a third one that’s the difference between them, or just the third frequency. By the principles of resonance, the interference pattern between two signals vibrating ‘out of tune’ may interfere with the frequency of brainwaves and distort other sensory input. Whether this is beneficial is difficult to determine; it almost certainly causes some interesting states of mind, but we have no studies as regards to how ‘brain entrainment’ affects everyday issues such as cognitive abilities, memory, or mood stability, especially over long periods of time. We would appreciate reports from users to increase our knowledge in this area.

It would also be good if someone could analyse music in order to see whether it sets up similar effects within the brain.


Hemispheric Synchronization and Set Point

This concept was developed based upon the right/left brain theory and ‘dominant hemispheres’, which we now know to be inadequate to describe brain function.

It was believed that by producing certain frequencies the brain could be entrained into a state of hemispheric synchronization [HS]. Within this process both the right & left hemisphere are coaxed into ‘working together’. The ‘set point’ described the dominance of one hemisphere over the other, and could be changed via HS.

Although outdated, this technique may have met with success for the entirely different reason that it could calm down overactive networks or encourage sluggish networks to ‘join in’, and so balance the performance of the brain overall. In this respect it sounds similar to CES –and in the latter case the electrical current may be providing the frequencies required.

The ‘set point’ was thought to be the point at which the left and right hemisphere interacted. Now that we are aware that the brain divides its labors into networks rather than hemispheres, it is probable that the set point is the place where all systems interact; i.e., network 6. Thus this method could encourage development of the ACG and multimodal association areas, or it could just be hacking network 3. Regardless of how you choose to believe it works, the ‘set point’ in this instance can still be regarded as the point of optimal thinking or a peak performance type state. It would be wise to know more about it before diving in full time however.


‘HemiSynch’ and similar are cassette tapes or audio CDs, meant to be played over

headphones, that play different frequencies into each ear, sometimes to create a

binaural beat frequency.

‘Paraliminal tapes’ use a technique of telling two different stories

at the same time, one into each ear, theoretically this works directly onto your

unconscious by confusing your conscious mind, although we have our doubts about this theory. Multiple input using two different types, e.g., music and images, would seem to be a more powerful aid to learning & memory.


The Laxman

The Laxman 'Innertainment' System combines light and sound entrainment with the features of a multimedia device.

The Laxman claims new ground in several areas. Its All-Color Ganzfeld Open-Eye Goggles can transmit every color of the light spectrum indirectly onto the open (or closed) eyes. This apparently works well for shifting mind-states; its effectiveness is compounded with the Ganzfeld Effect of the goggles and auditory stimulation. There are over four hours of ambient and nature sound arrangements used in the pre-programmed sessions. Classical impulse frequencies, binaural-beats and hemicircle sounds are also used. The LaxEdit software can be used to upload MP3 files to the Laxman so that you can use your own favorite music tracks with light and sound sessions, and run sessions created by yourself, language courses, your own suggestions or audio books.

Wild divine

The Journey to Wild Divine is a computer game with dozens of biofeedback challenges. You have the mouse in one hand and biofeedback sensors in the other. As you follow the game on the monitor you are prompted to increase or decrease your concentration (they call it 'mind-body energy') levels in order to proceed. What's going on here is that you are learning through biofeedback conscious control of unconscious processes.


‘Lucid dream machines’

A lucid dream is one in which you know that you are dreaming, and

also have full control over what happens to you in the dream, even

though you're still asleep. People who are really "into" lucid dreaming say

that it puts your sleeping hours to work to enhance your creativity and

that it helps you get a feeling of control over your waking life to have

your sleeping life under control. The Lucidity Institute sells an expensive piece of hardware that they claim monitors you for REM state, although it’s not difficult to do that using either electrodes [if you can afford them] or a friend.

When it detects the onset of REM, the machine flashes a dim LED onto your eyelids.

The idea is that you'll see the light in front of you in your dream, and

remember that that's your cue that you're dreaming. Getting a friend to do this may cost more in coffee than electrodes, but it will certainly be cheaper than the LI’s version.

Too much time spent lucid dreaming can interfere with memory, although once or twice a week does not seem to.



Neuro-magnetic stimulation (NMS)

NMS uses magnetic signals applied from outside the head in a manner similar to TMS. There are differences however. The signals used are taken from brainwave frequencies and used to induce action potentials in the same structures that produced them in the first place. The technique works best in silence and darkness, and sessions can last up to an hour, so it's important to have a quiet space. Permanent changes can be achieved in anything from three weeks to a month and a half, depending on type and length of session and frequency of use.

This might sound a lot, but the results are in my opinion worth it. There are no apparent side effects, which is great, although NMS can be a difficult horse to ride at first it is worth persevering. It's also beautifully cheap to construct your own, or if you don't have the required skills, it's pretty cheap to buy (around $200 at the time of writing). And it's not noisy.

Using biofeedback, EEG signals can be recorded and reused as sound/light input, but NMS uses audio, digital to analog conversion and fourier transform to turn the input into magnetic signals. The magnetic signals are low (milligauss) intensity asymmetric, anisotropic, wave forms.

These stimulate action potentials in the required parts, normally mid brain networks centered on the hippocampus and amygdala, by centering the coils over the temporal and parietal lobes. NMS is rather more tailored to the individual than most 'mind machines' because you can alter the input depending on how your own brain is wired.

It can also be applied for specific problems, the most notable being its ability to silence 'inner chatter'. It can also reduce or enhance the intensity of emotions overall, improve memory recall and quell anxiety.


NMS/ TMS for LTP enhancement

Altering synaptic transmission in the temporal lobes changes the way the networks process external and internal stimuli. Inducing LTP in the auditory thalamus, for example, will enhance our perception of sound. NMS can enhance LTP in the hippocampus, leading to advanced pictorial memory skills. Obviously this is a boon for faster learning, but the hippocampus is also the region responsible for turning short-term memories into longer ones. And something most people don't know about NMS is, if you practice a new skill a couple of hours before sleeping, and then get somebody to give you a session whilst you're sleeping, the effect on LTP ability is quite profound.

This has to be timed, i.e., the NMS session must occur during REM and deeper sleep. This can be ascertained by wiring yourself to EEG, or getting your assistant to patiently watch your eyelids, or writing a little program to automatically initialize the NMS session when the EEG detects REM (this is probably the most ethical method, nobody else being involved). You have to be able to sleep in an NMS hat, but it's quite comfortable and dark in there so it doesn't take too much getting used to.

Bear in mind the ability to enhance pictorial (eidetic) memory, because that's the bridge which ties all this together (see tutorials).

At the time of writing, popular neuroscience, assuming all input remains parallel, is not in agreement (or even familiar with) matrix theory interpretation of sensory input, emotion and imagination. However, we have found no evidence against, and plenty for, the following:

Our declarative language centers are usually in the left hemisphere, and the left frontotemporal cortex is a "conceptualization" area. When this area is 'switched off', as you will recall in TMS, a healthy person feels an urge to cry. If we are depressed, it will actually feel better to have this part switched off for a while, because it is a link between input and imagination. If input is all inner thoughts of gloom, imagination can make life quite unpleasant. Cut off from the inner 'editing suite', we see reality raw, much as we saw it as a young child. Our ability to copy it is enhanced but we are unable to apply creative imagination to input and so cannot draw or write or make, anything new. If we made this kind of change permanently we would be left with a mind that could mimic a thing perfectly but never do anything original... With a mind like a very good tribute band.

TMS treatment for depression does not result in this outcome because what is actually going on, is the person begins learning to control these parts of their brain by being given an example of the contrast between them being overactive, and totally inactive. We learn how to turn the 'inner noise' down by being given an example of silence.



Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) can increase or decrease the excitability of the cortex, thereby changing its level of plasticity. For example, TMS of the motor cortex that increased its excitability improved performance in a procedural learning task. TMS in suitable areas has also been found beneficial in a motor task, motor learning, visuo-motor coordination tasks, working memory, finger sequence tapping, classification/association and declarative memory consolidation during sleep.

TMS inhibiting anterior brain areas can change the drawing style of normal subjects into a more complex form and improve spell-checking abilities, presumably by reducing top-down semantic control.

TMS uses pulses of electromagnetic field that induce an electric field in the brain. It is a direct way of manipulating and interfering with the function of some networks.


Brain stimulation with TMS can be either excitatory or inhibitory, depending on the frequency of the field. Excitatory effects are normally sensory motor. In the inhibitory mode TMS can temporarily suppress perception and/or interfere with task performance. At first glance this may not seem very useful. However, people can exhibit remarkable newfound skills when hooked up to TMS in inhibitory mode, and with regular use retain use of these abilities after the temporarily 'silenced' bits come back online.

TMS achieves its effects by sending short (about one thousandth of a second) pulses of magnetic field through a coil located above or beside the head. The pulses can be varied from between one per second to about 50 per second, and they are generated with a circuit containing a discharge capacitor connected with the coil in series by a thyristor. With the capacitor first charged, the gating of the thyristor into the conducting state will cause the discharging of the capacitor through the coil. The field is strongest near the coil and stimulates a cortical area of a few centimeters in diameter. The pulses cause coherent firing of neurons in the stimulated area, and alters neuronal action potential firing due to synaptic input. (The field affects the neurons' transmembrane voltage and thereby the voltage-sensitive ion channels.)

The effects of TMS are many and varied. Perhaps the most remarkable thing is, when we 'turn off' some of the higher brain functions using this method, extraordinary abilities emerge. Often they are musical, mathematical, linguistic or artistic. It can increase our attention to detail and clarity of perception. One mistake people make about this is believing the abilities it enhances to be creative -they are not. TMS may enable you to sing a song perfectly after hearing it only once, but it will not assist you to write one. It is the ability to copy, which is enhanced. If you are creative already, though, the results can be stunning. Sensory motor tasks can also be learned faster by stimulating the motor cortex whilst they are practiced. Reaction time can be increased in many tasks, for example the recognition and naming of objects, by TMS-ing Wernicke's area with a quick blip just before each one.

The area of the cortex we 'turn off' for these purposes, is the left frontotemporal lobe. 20 minutes is a good session time, and practice of the skill required should be pursued throughout and after the event. After a week or so of one session per day you will notice some large changes in your ability. Once you have practiced enough, you will keep the skill for as long as you continue to regularly use it, just like any other. It feels very similar to learning how to raise or lower your blood pressure through biofeedback, as though something that is normally unconscious is being lifted into conscious awareness through practice.

Other (no less remarkable) effects of TMS and also of Neuro Magnetic Stimulation (NMS), which we'll talk about in a minute, are the evocation of temporal lobe emotion and related experiences, auditory, visual and mental (see below).

Both these bits of tech have potential in the treatment of depression and other aberrant mental conditions too, so they are well worth getting into. TMS provides a good test if someone is not sure whether they are suffering from depression or merely going through a mood phase. You can ascertain which it is by aiming the TMS at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. If the subject has a sudden desire to cry or actually cries, they're not depressed. If they feel no urge to cry, or even cheer up a little, they probably have depression. To treat it, aim at the same area for 30 minutes at a time, daily, for two weeks. Then sit back and be pleasantly surprised. You will be. TMS even seems to be effective in depression cases that will not respond to drugs. The effect should last for about three months, so you should be able to achieve an ongoing control by doing this every quarter, although some people have only needed to use TMS twice a year to keep their depression at bay in a drug-free way.

TMS has its drawbacks however. If you buy one, it will set you back around $35,000 so it's best to build your own. On top of that, it's hot, (as in, temperature, not as in, stolen) and can actually burn the scalp if the proper precautions are not taken. It can cause muscular cramps in the head and neck. And the real problem is, it's loud. Imagine a deathwatch beetle at around 100 dB +; that's what I mean by loud. Your neighbors will not be impressed; in fact you are likely to get complaints from as far as three streets away. So unless you're a genius at noise cancellation you need an isolated location, helicopter pilots' earplugs and then some. Finally, don't even think about using TMS if there's any metal or tech on or in you (remove jewelry and check pockets). The magnetic field attracts ferromagnetic objects and repels nonmagnetic conductors (it will disturb the function of electronic devices). This also matters for the experimenter as well as the subject. If you have ever seen anyone stuck to a TMS coil by their trouser zip, you will appreciate the fact that this caution is not to be ignored. TMS is a very powerful tool for learning, but it is wise to remember that it is a very powerful tool.

There is a protocol for TMS use designed by and for users, which you will encounter if you get involved in online groups using it. The government hasn't got its act together to design safety protocols yet, so guys wrote their own. It is important to conform to these if we expect any approval from bodies such as the FDA & BMA, and in this sense also you are asked to be responsible. Do not even think of using this technology if you have ever had seizures.


TMS for enhancement

(2005) — Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as an intriguing technique for exploring brain function, and a promising form of therapy. A short course of rTMS can increase finger sensitivity for up to two hours after treatment ends, and that this change corresponds to an increase in the size of the brain map representing the finger.

Sensory input from each region of the body is represented on the surface of the brain, and the location of any region can be mapped to allow precise targeting of the rTMS.

Users adjust the strength of the magnetic field to just below that which triggers a sensory response in the target area, then apply intermittent pulses of stimulation over the course of about ten minutes.

FMRI reveals how the brain changes in response to the stimulation. The region representing the target area gets larger, and that the degree of increase in any one subject corresponds to the degree of increased sensitivity in that same subject. Thus, the cortex itself undergoes changes as a result of rTMS.



NMS/ TMS for defragging

TMS can to induce the brain waves characteristic of deep, non-REM sleep. Problems with intrusive noise have limited exploration, but it may be possible to use NMS to achieve this. Regular practice would reduce the need for sleep and promote faster defragging (see tutorials).


NMS/ TMS and spiritual experiences/altered states

The most important thing about NMS is its ability to reduce anxiety and increase the rate of LTP, and for this it is an indispensable tool.... But perhaps the most amazing thing about NMS and TMS is not only their ability to directly induce emotion, prompting us to laugh or cry, but their ability to induce temporal lobe emotion/experience.


In the 1980’s Persinger made headlines with his “God Helmet”, a TMS device that stimulates temporal lobes with a weak magnetic field in order to produce spiritual states. By measuring the electroencephalographic activity of individuals having mystical experiences and stimulating the same areas with the weak electromagnetic fields generated by the helmet, such experiences can be recreated. When stimulating the right parietal region for example you can induce an out of body experience, and the left tempero-parietal junction produces the experience of someone else being behind or beside you, or even touching you.

Being able to induce artificial altered states through sensory input to the brain is nothing new. Various patterns of sound and light are well known to do this, for example hemisync methods, lucid dreaming or brainwave generation machines, as well as drugs and many other forms of input control.

But your ability to actually have temporal lobe experiences depends on your neurochemistry.

'Altered state' experiences include cognitive types (Deja and Jamais vu), the feeling of "a sensed presence", somatic (such as vestibular experiences and arasthesias), and emotional ("blissful" or "visionary" experiences, which are commonly referred to as "spiritual", largely because until recently it was believed that they were caused by god.)

These have some factors in common in all persons, one of these being an accompanying sense of "oneness with the universe"; a sense of infinite and eternal "self-in-spacetime" that is in fact a prelude to the experience of synergy. Another is the emotion of awe and sense of deep, numinous meaning, which is accompanied by temporal lobe activity. During such experiences, the brain is very active in the attention networks and temporal lobes and virtually shuts down parts of the parietal lobe. For some, sensory deprivation can help trigger such experiences, for others, specific kinds (and always the same kinds) of input are the triggers; music, light, stylized movements and certain shapes (all the components of religious ritual).

When temporal lobe experiences happen, we shut down certain areas of the brain and enhance the activity of others. Emotional weighting increases manyfold, and we experience hyperreality. Temporal lobe experiences usually encompass a complete stress/relaxation cycle, bringing first desire and then fulfilment. Both are very intense. They can produce much more believable hallucinations and illusions than LSD.


Why can't some people have spiritual experiences?


In some cases the networks themselves are not sufficiently developed (nonuse)

In some cases the networks are too busy being used for the wrong things (wronguse).

In short, if the hardware is not available, the software cannot run.

Imaging techniques have been used to determine which regions of the brain are active during spiritual experiences.


Intense focus; linked to concentration, the frontal lobes light up during meditation.

Spiritual emotions; the mid-temporal lobe is linked to emotional aspects of spiritual experience, such as fulfilment and awe.

Sacred images; network 3 is involved in the process by which images, such as candles or symbols, statues or portraits, facilitate input control and a shift in brainwave patterns.

Response to spiritual words; association area at the juncture of three lobes, this region governs response to and associations in language.

Cosmic unity. When the parietal lobes quiet down, a person can feel at one with the universe .

In order to have 'spiritual experiences', certain brain circuits must (a) be sufficiently densely connected and (b) responsive to input. These are the key areas targeted with NMS/ TMS:

- Activity in the amygdalae (medial temporal lobe), which monitor the environment for threats and benefits and registers alarm and desire.

- Orientation association areas in Parietal lobe circuits, which orient you in space and mark the sharp distinction between self and world. Specifically, the left orientation area creates the sensation of a physically delimited body; the right orientation area creates the sense of the physical space in which the body exists. If you block sensory inputs to this region, as during the intense concentration of meditation or the application of TMS etc, you prevent the brain from forming the distinction between self and not-self. With no distraction from the senses arriving, the left orientation area cannot find any boundary between the self and the world. The right orientation area, equally bereft of sensory data, defaults to a feeling of infinite space. As a result, the brain seems to have no choice but to perceive the self as endless and intimately interwoven with everyone and everything.

- Lateral frontal- and temporal-lobe circuits, which mark time and generate self-awareness. Electrical stimulation of the temporal lobes (which use the networks responsible for language, conceptual thinking and associations) produces visions. Temporal-lobe epilepsy causes abnormal bursts of electrical activity in these regions.

When all these areas are targeted, what we think of as the functions of conscious awareness that isolate us as individuals appear to 'drop out,' 'dissolve,' or be 'absorbed into a bigger consciousness or greater awareness'.

In this state, people with a low-functioning or non-functioning pre-frontal network (N6; see tutorials) are more likely to misattribute internally generated thoughts to an external source, rather than their own unconscious thought (this is how 'god' gets blamed). So it's important to have a clear functional analysis if you choose to experiment with these states.

Even people who describe themselves as nonspiritual can be moved by spiritual input. Hence the power of ritual. Drumming, dancing, incantations-all rivet attention on a single, intense source of sensory stimulation, including the body's own movements. They also evoke powerful hormonal and neurochemical (and hence emotional and behavioral) responses.

This combination; focused attention that excludes other sensory stimuli, plus heightened emotion, is the trigger. Together, they seem to send the brain's arousal system into hyperdrive, much as intense love does. When this happens, one of the brain structures responsible for maintaining equilibrium-the hippocampus-puts on the brakes. It inhibits the flow of signals between some neutworks and re-routes communication. Slow chanting, dance, music and ritualistic prayer all seem to work in much the same way: they turn on the hippocampus directly and block neuronal traffic to some brain regions. The result again is blurring the edges of the brain's sense of self, opening the door to the unitary states.

In spiritual experiences, sensory awareness drops out so you are left only with pure consciousness, and this gives you the experience that consciousness does not need association with an object, and is not a mere byproduct of sensory action. Rather, it is experienced the other way round.

Using NMS & TMS for 'altered state' experiences

Method 1: Set up a sensory-deprivation situation and add NMS targeting the temporal lobes. (If you build earmuffs and a padded visor into your NMS helmet you're halfway there already). Nighttime is the best time for ambient quiet and dark. Give yourself one session for one hour, and don't do it again for 3 weeks to a month.

Method 2: Using TMS with a magnetic field of 1 microtesla, move the coil from the back of the left temporal lobe to the front, across it's lower edge, then down to the ventral edge and along the top edge back to where you started. Repeat with the right temporal lobe, moving clockwise in a similar manner, and keep repeating the cycle until effects are noticed (but not for more than 20 minutes.)

Mood improvement upgrade

As above, but use your NMS for half an hour, and repeat once a week for 6 weeks.

TMS & 'savant' abilities

TMS can induce factors of savant intelligence. It is important to distinguish between 'savant abilities' (single-network or single-area enhanced mental abilities such as most often appear in autistic savants) and the abilities of obsessive-compulsive memorisers (who can recall what day it was for any date on the last 2000 years or endlessly recite train timetables etc). The latter ability is due to obsessively constant use of the networks involved for the one task and nothing else, the former abilities are related to a default state emerging from the nonuse of certain networks, brain damage leading to their nonuse, or a lack of their development.

This does not mean that you become mentally defective when using TMS! With certain brain functions turned off, both autistic and healthy people see the raw data of the world as it is; as it is actually represented eidetically in the unconscious minds of all of us (eg; primary process thinking), and the ability to express what is seen by physical means such as art, mathematics or music can also be enhanced. In savants, this condition is permanent. In healthy people it is temporary; one of the modalities some people are able to use when being artistically creative, writing music, programming or using mathematics; and we call it 'genius' because such a mind can tap into lower level details not readily available to introspection by most individuals. People like Einstein can turn this modality on and off in one or two networks without permanently losing any other modalities (true genius would actually be the ability to achieve this modality at will in ANY network without permanently losing any other modalities).

TMS for enhanced abilities of this nature should not be used unless you already have a full set of functional, balanced networks (again, if the hardware isn't available, the software can't run) and to attempt to force it to do so may actually reduce overall intelligence rather than enhance it.

Using rTMS to limit, on a very temporary basis, some network areas in normal persons, TMS can have remarkable effects. 40% of test subjects exhibit extraordinary (and newfound) mental skills. There can be significant improvement, in talents that mediate 'savant' activities such as perfect pitch, eidetic imagery, mechanical reasoning, reading ability and memory along with unmasking of latent abilities in tasks such as certain types of memory, music, integer calculating, reading and artistic abilities. While at first these abilities are temporary, repeated use makes them accessible at will (just as accessing relaxed states in biofeedback or through drugs enables us to learn to do so voluntarily).

TMS applied to the prefrontal cortex enables subjects to solve geometric puzzles much more rapidly. Lateral frontal lobe application enables improvements in drawing. Targeting the left fronto-temporal area enhances some types of memory, artistic ability, linguistic representation and mathematical ability.


Sensory disorientation

Other methods of inducing strange experiences use sensorimotor tech. Most such procedures use cameras to fool people into thinking they are standing or sitting somewhere else in a room.


The easiest method uses a head-mounted display that shows users footage of themselves

filmed from behind, while preventing them from seeing anything else. An assistant then uses a

plastic rod to prod the subject in the chest and simultaneously holds a second rod in front of

the camera behind them, to make it seem that the illusory "person" viewed from behind is

being prodded in the chest too.


Subjects physically feel themselves being prodded, but also have the weird sensation that it was their image in the film footage being prodded. It gives you a very strong sensation you're sitting somewhere else; e.g., an out-of-body experience.


Sensory deprivation

Is normally done in “retreat pods” or “flotation tanks” (see 'methods & tech part 1: methods)

A Retreat pod is a space that attempts to reproduce some of the conditions inside the womb, with soft lighting, external temperature matching body temperature, and so on. Most of these units are home-built because the manufactured versions are extremely expensive.

A Flotation tank is a large "sauna like" encased container filled with water and a few 1000 lbs. of epsom salt. The casing filters out all light and sound, but continues to allow air into the tank.

These sensory deprivation tools encourage an individual to look deep within. The basic idea is to deprive the body of all sensory stimulation. If you open your eyes you will only see very dimly or pitch blackness. Because the casing is sound proof you hear nothing external. In a flotation tank your kinesthetic perception (feeling or touch) becomes lulled into oneness with the water as you float. You no longer feel immersed in liquid but rather feel a part of the liquid. With four of your five senses peacefully unstimulated your hungry mind begins to find stimulation by looking within, and so all that remains is a simply conscious being. Because the mind is always seeking stimulus, when it receives nothing begins it begins to listen, feel, think and see (with the minds eye) inward. This can be verified by EEG readings that show a decline from Beta Waves to as slow as Delta.

Further reading:

Methods & tech part 1: methods (this section)



Ganzfeld Effect

Through the placement of goggles or glasses with a single unvarying color coating (preferably white) painted on the interior of the frame, the eyes begin to view an unchanging stimulus and react accordingly. No stimulus, no arousal. With reduced external stimulus the brain can access inward introspection. This phenomenon is referred to as the Ganzfeld Effect. Why it cannot be achieved with a blindfold is not explained, nor are the possible dangers to sight of a pure white constant input up the optic nerve –ever heard of snow blindness guys? Proceed with caution!


Acoustic Field Generation


Types of Acoustic Field Generators:

sound chairs/tables

music beds

vibro-tactile stimulators

All of these devices utilize vibrations of sound at specific frequencies sent through the body. It is believed that this vibrating stimulation releases pleasurable neurochemicals such as serotonin and endorphins. Large portions of the brain are devoted to vibration processing. Musical vibrations or organized sound send powerful emotional information. Often deep seated emotions, blocks or other unconscious reflections are unearthed after use. Perhaps this is why individuals often report feeling or experiencing deeply moving emotions or episodes after experimenting with a whole body vibrating device of some sort.

There are a limited number of these kinds of product on the market, and many units are home made, again for financial reasons. Units range from ‘massage’ chairs with simple vibrating pillows to full rooms with temperature, light and sound controls.


Alpha Chamber

It looks like a giant egg, and is the chair used in the interview scene in the movie Men In Black. It encloses the user in a kind of womb, with vibroacoustic cushions. This product is usually sold with a large "library" of audio and videotapes and CDs, plus a large Monitor, stereo and VCR, as a turnkey system. It can be fitted with biofeedback sensors fairly easily.

There have been some custom designed systems in various facilities-- domes with amazing sound and light included. There are a number of other companies that make chairs or tables with acoustic vibration cushions, which look somewhat like the Symmetron, but without the movement and the pedestal that contains the movement machinery. These may also offer VR virtual reality glasses integrated with the sound systems. Good VR glasses can cost $3500 or more. These chairs range in price from about $3000 to $25,000 (alpha chamber loaded with library, sound and video system and large monitor.)

'Brain training games' machines & software

Or 'educational toys' are becoming ever more popular. Examples include Nintendo's 'brain training game', Brainmaster, Braingym and Braintrainer.

Evidence of these programs’ ability to boost memory or intelligence in a broadly applicable way (rather than simply improving intellect or making people faster at the task they are practicing) remains non-existent. They do improve intellect and short term working memory, at about the same rate as doing crossword puzzles or math puzzles with pencil & paper.


Tech for life extension & uploading

Perhaps the most radical kind of enhancement is the aim of permanence -that intelligence can continue to exist by various means as the limitations of biology are transcended.

We have seen the success of healing methods and technology more than double human lifespans since the middle ages and preserve our bodies for a lot longer (despite self inflicted damage from dodgy lifestyles), but not much research adressed longevity of the brain until longer lives brought to light the damage that dodgy lifestyles do to brains. (There is little point in living to 200 if your lifestyle sends you mad after 40 years.)

Suggestions for making intelligence more permanent are various: constant transplantation/ replacement of all organs and tissues and rejuvenation of the body, revival after cryonic storage, full body transplant into another body such as a clone or synthetic android, or by abandoning the physical body altogether and moving onto a technology-based platform.

Nowhere has the idea of avoiding damage in the first place entered into this consideration, although it is just starting to become part of public awareness in the physical sense (2010) with low GI diets, childcare and lifestyle information hitting the news just as the welfare system starts struggling to support the results of damage in an ever-growing population of elderly dependants. Hopefully the exponential accompanying rise in dementia related disorders will prompt similar public education about the effects of diet, childcare and lifestyle on the brain.


Brain transplants

Theoretically, a person with advanced organ failure could be given a new and functional body while keeping their own personality and memories via a brain transplant (a 'full body transplant' is a better way to describe this; in a 'brain transplant' you would want to be the donor, not the recipient!) Body donors would be people who have suffered fatal brain injury or died in good physical health of brain disease.

There is a potential problem of interface at the spinal cord, because of variation in wiring and plasticity, in that even if all the nerves are connected successfully they may not transmit the same information as the same nerve connection in the old body. The person undergoing the transplant might end up with a body which transmitted sensory input to the wrong destination, making it incomprehensible and potentially requiring many years of rehabilitation.

Experiments on animals with full body transplants have been 'partially successful', while partial brain transplants have met with some success.

Mind uploading or whole brain emulation (sometimes called mind transfer, universal uploading or electronic transcendence) is theorized as a process of taking an ordinary brain, scanning it by either destructive or nondestructive means, and then producing a simulated copy in a computer, entirely free of the original biological body. The computer runs a virtual simulation of reality so faithful to the original that the 'computer mind' will behave in essentially the same way as the original brain, or for all practical purposes, indistinguishably.


Alternatively, the simulated mind is transferred to a computer inside (or connected to) a biological body or an android/ robot. The idea of inhabiting a robot is a natural extension of using implants such as artificial hearts, retinas or limbs. We are already well aware that our consciousness is not diminished by incorporating artificial body parts or transplants from another person. With the development of artificial memory implants and neurotransmitter delivery systems we have become aware that consciousness does not mind artificial prostheses acting as brain parts either.




Última actualización el Sábado 10 de Marzo de 2012 11:23